https://www.theodysseyonline.com/universal-design-for-learning-deeper-dive-3 — about finding diverse ways (“universal design for learning”) to foster and assess comprehension… but … it’s hard to translate this into real things. Things like suggesting that we remind students of background knowledge, and if they don’t have it, teach it to them — that’s peachy! But … That is so very, very far from simple. What do you mean by “teach” — build concepts? Do a few things with terms in what they’re learning?
Still, it’s a good outline and it puts “out there” that yes, we can and should expect comprehension, not just survival.