Waiting for Eight

Posted on August 13, 2013

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… So, while I’m waiting for thelast section of #howtolearnmath to appear, I checked out my lincs emails — an adult ed email group —  and we’ve got a discussion of how technology can transform adult ed, to wit:https://community.lincs.ed.gov/discussion/welcome-first-day-discussion-%E2%80%9Chow-can-technology-transform-adult-education-and-current-pr

A phrase has already leapt at me: “periodic coaching by a human expert or peer.”  This is being touted as preferable to expecting everything to be done via technology… but … “periodic coaching” sounds like the computer is still being considered the smartest creature there.  Hmmm.

Here’s a nice little checklist (including caveat):

“Consider further the 25 principles presented by Lifelong Learning at Work and at Home.

1. Contiguity Effects: Ideas that need to be associated should be presented contiguously in space and time.

2. Perceptual-motor Grounding:  Concepts benefit from being grounded in perceptual motor experiences, particularly at early stages of learning.

3. Dual Code and Multimedia Effects: Materials presented in verbal, visual, and multimedia form richer representations than a single medium.

4. Testing Effect: Testing enhances learning, particularly when the tests are aligned with important content.

5. Spacing Effect: Spaced schedules of studying and testing produce better long-term retention than a single study session or test.

6. Exam Expectations: Students benefit more from repeated testing when they expect a final exam.

7. Generation Effect: Learning is enhanced when learners produce answers compared to having them recognize answers.

8. Organization Effects: Outlining, integrating, and synthesizing information produces better learning than rereading materials or other more passive strategies.

9. Coherence Effect: Materials and multimedia should explicitly link related ideas and minimize distracting irrelevant material.

10. Stories and Example Cases: Stories and example cases tend to be remembered better than didactic facts and abstract principles.

11. Multiple Examples: An understanding of an abstract concept improves with multiple and varied examples.

12. Feedback Effects: Students benefit from feedback on their performance in a learning task, but the timing of the feedback depends on the task.

13. Negative Suggestion Effects: Learning wrong information can be reduced when feedback is immediate.

14. Desirable Difficulties: Challenges make learning and retrieval effortful and thereby have positive effects on long-term retention.

15. Manageable Cognitive Load: The information presented to the learner should not overload working memory.

16. Segmentation Principle: A complex lesson should be broken down into manageable subparts.

17. Explanation Effects: Students benefit more from constructing deep coherent explanations (mental models) of the material than memorizing shallow isolated facts.

18. Deep questions: Students benefit more from asking and answering deep questions that elicit explanations (e.g., why, why not, how, what-if) than shallow questions (e.g., who, what, when, where).

19. Cognitive Disequilibrium: Deep reasoning and learning is stimulated by problems that create cognitive disequilibrium, such as obstacles to goals, contradictions, conflict, and anomalies.

20. Cognitive Flexibility: Cognitive flexibility improves with multiple viewpoints that link facts, skills, procedures, and deep conceptual principles.

21. Goldilocks Principle: Assignments should not be too hard or too easy, but at the right level of difficulty for the student’s level of skill or prior knowledge.

22. Metacognition: Students rarely have an accurate knowledge of their cognition so their ability to calibrate their comprehension, learning, and memory should not be trusted and they need to be trained to improve important metacognitive judgments.

23. Discovery Learning: Most students have trouble discovering important principles on their own, without careful guidance, scaffolding, or materials with well-crafted affordances.

24. Self-regulated Learning: Most students need training on how to self-regulate their learning and other cognitive processes.

25. Anchored Learning: Learning is deeper and students are more motivated when the materials and skills are anchored in real world problems that matter to the learner.

Virtually all of these principles are applicable to some, but not all, adult learners and types of material.  More research is needed to sort out what is best for what learners.”

… heading back to it…

 

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